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ISSN 2692-501X


Front Matter


Editors’ Preface

History Awards

Phi Alpha Theta 

Submission Guidelines 

Volume 48 (2021)
Volume 48 (2021)
Articles and Essays
 Michael Alex Conti 

 Saint Andrew’s First-Century Prophecy of Division:
The Founding of Kiev and the Idea of the Third Rome 

 Edward Najjarine 

 Islam Meets Western Modernity:
The Travels of Rifa’a al-Tahtawi (1801-1873) and Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) 

 Christopher Dean Robbins 

 Leaping Devils, Mutated Swine, and Deadly Doubles:
Dark Folklore in Early Victorian England (1830s-1870s) 

 Michaela Malneritch 

 A Morbid Remembrance?
The Purpose of Nineteenth-Century Victorian Death Portraits 

 Diana Chang 

 Rebranding Chile:
Nineteenth-Century Modernization Efforts and Their Consequences 

 Luca Azuma 

 Cooking the Books and Frying the Economy:
The Discounted Impacts of the Panic of 1866 in the United Kingdom 

 Josh Kreeger 

 “Another town, another maiden”:
German Colonial Postcards as Propaganda (1884-1914) 

 Ian Woodson Fisher 

 Darius Milhaud
and His French “Saudades” of Brazil (1917-1919) 

 Eric Lomax 

 Warriors or Peacekeepers?
British Colonial Police in Ireland (1919-1921) and Palestine (1920-1948) 

 Danielle Bennett 

 “All I wanted was to be a good citizen”:
Fred Lau’s Chinese Diasporic Experience in 1920s-1950s California 

 Raul Quinonez 

 A Voluntary Exodus?
Self-Repatriation from the U.S. to Mexico during the 1930s 

Diego Barros 

The Mighty Ninety:
Black Americans Championing the Cause of Freedom in Republican Spain 

Michael Anderson 

Swing Reich:
A Cultural Analysis of Jazz during World War II 

Jovanee Castrejon 

Out-of-This-World Thrills:
The Psychological and Social Aspects of American Astronauts’ Life in Space 

Renee D. Jean 

Rejection in the Revolution:
Leninist Theory and the Weather Underground (1969-1974) 

Shanna J. Bice 

Enchanted Statues, Candy Cottages, and Bloody Keys:
The Modern Tourist Experience on Germany’s Historical Fairy Tale Road 

Gareth O’Neal 

“Ever true unto your forefathers stalwart stay”:
Týr’s Folk Metal as a Neo-Medievalist Response to the Perceived Loss of Culture 

Jeffrey Mark Leavitt 

Memories in Emulsion:
Photography and the Remembrance of Japanese Incarceration 

Articles and Essays
Emanuel Ayala, Luca Azuma, Ryan Bevacqua, and Matthew Kelly 

Correspondence from the American Revolution and the Early United States:
The Blackden-Stoddard Letters (Conclusion) 

Trenton Buzzone and Jessica Parker 

“True friendship is the noblest gift“:
The Album of Memory of Jennie Farr (1858-1882) 

Emanuel Ayala and Josh Kreeger 

“La guerre est finis”:

Sidney Goldman’s World War II Correspondence from Manila (August 1945) 

Erika Victoria 

The Real Pearl Harbor Experience:

An Interview with World War II Veteran Arthur G. Herriford 

Monique Garcia 

“I wouldn’t want my kids to go through that”:
Glover Young’s Memories of a Native American Boarding School 

Michael Ward 

The Struggles of Segregation in Orange County:
Silvino Ramirez and Mendez v. Westminster (1946-1947) 

Starlina Sanchez 

A Lifetime of Lessons in Just One Year:
A. Peter Bailey, Malcolm X, and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1964-1965)

Matthew Kelly and Gabriel Taggard 

Activism and Interactivism:
An Interview with Journalist Mark Thompson (1952-2016)

Books (one PDF)
  • Blondé, Bruno, Marc Boone, and Anne-Laure Van Bruaene, eds.
    City and Society in the Low Countries, 1100–1600.
    Reviewed by Eric Lomax 


  • Domby, Adam H.
    The False Cause: Fraud, Fabrication, and White Supremacy in Confederate Memory.
    Reviewed by Emanuel Ayala 

  • Matyszak, Philip.
    Greece Against Rome: The Fall of the Hellenistic Kingdoms 250-31 BC.
    Reviewed by Ryan Bevacqua 


  • Mikhail, Alan.
    God’s Shadow: Sultan Selim, His Ottoman Empire, and the Making of the Modern World.
    Reviewed by Raumi Kinan 


  • Owens, Susan.
    The Ghost: A Cultural History.
    Reviewed by Laynie Brooks Dabney 


  • Pablo Cruz, Rosayra, and Julie Schwietert Collazo.
    The Book of Rosy: A Mother’s Story of Separation at the Border.
    Reviewed by Monique Garcia 


  • Seo, Sarah A.
    Policing the Open Road: How Cars Transformed American Freedom.
    Reviewed by Jessica Parker 


  • Wilson-Lee, Kelcey.
    Daughters of Chivalry: The Forgotten Children of Edward I.
    Reviewed by Ryan Bevacqua 

Exhibitions (one PDF)
  • Double Victory: The African American Military Experience [online exhibition].
    Reviewed by Trenton Buzzone 


  • The Mausoleum Museum of the First Emperor of Qin [online exhibition].
    Reviewed by Erika Victoria 

Films/Documentaries/TV Shows (one PDF)
  • All Is True [film]. Directed by Kenneth Branagh.
    Reviewed by Gabriel Taggard 


  • The Assassination of Gianni Versace [TV series]. Directed by Ryan Murphy et al.
    Reviewed by Erika Victoria 


  • Belly of the Beast [documentary film]. Directed by Erika Cohn.
    Reviewed by Starlina Sanchez 


  • Cable Girls/Las chicas del cable [TV series]. Directed by Carlos Sedes et al.
    Reviewed by Josh Kreeger


  • Chernobyl [TV miniseries]. Directed by Johan Renck.
    Reviewed by
    Raumi Kinan 

  • Dark Waters [film]. Directed by Todd Haynes.
    Reviewed by Matthew Kelly 


  • The King [film]. Directed by David Michôd.
    Reviewed by Josh Kreeger 


  • The Last Czars [TV docudrama]. Directed by Adrian McDowall and Gareth Tunley.
    Reviewed by Jessica Parker 


  • Rise of Empires: Ottoman [TV docudrama]. Directed by Emre Şahin.
    Reviewed by Michael Alex Conti 


  • Vienna Blood [TV series]. Directed by Robert Dornhelm and Umut Dag.
    Reviewed by Christopher Dean Robbins 

Games (one PDF)
  • Deus Lo Vult: The Board Game. Designer: Michael Badelin.
    Reviewed by Gareth O’Neal 


  • A Plague Tale: Innocence. Developer: Asobo Studio.
    Reviewed by Josh Kreeger 


  • Red Dead Redemption 2. Developer: Rockstar Games.
    Reviewed by Emanuel Ayala


  • The Sinking City. Developer: Frogwares.
    Reviewed by
    Christopher Dean Robbins