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ISSN 2692-501X

Articles and Essays
Cover PDF
Front Matter PDF
Contents PDF
Editors' Preface PDF
History Awards PDF
Phi Alpha Theta PDF
Submission Guidelines PDF


Front Matter


Editors’ Preface

History Awards

Phi Alpha Theta 

Submission Guidelines 

Welebaethan 2020 PDF
Volume 50 (2023)
Welebaethan 2023 PDF
Articles and Essays
Articles and Essays
Michael A. Conti
Conti Rus' Expressions of Romanitas

Rus’ Expressions of Romanitas
between the Tenth and Fifteenth Centuries

Scott Terlouw
Terlouw Matilda of Canossa's Agency

God’s Own Country:
Race, Religion, and the Development of Slavery in Colonial Virginia

Samantha Guzman
Guzman Murderous Accusations

Murderous Accusations:
Historical Approaches to the Salem Witch Trials (1692–1693)

Clay Kenworthy
Kenworthy From the Example of Cornelius

“From the Example of Cornelius”:
Eighteenth-Century Sermons for Soldiers in Great Britain

Grislean Palacios
Palacios The US Supreme Court and the First Amendment

The U.S. Supreme Court and the First Amendment:
Michael Les Benedict’s Interpretations in “The Blessings of Liberty”

David Cantwell
Cantwell The Lost Cause Movement

The “Lost Cause” Movement
and the Debate over Confederate Monuments

Walter Wheeler
Wheeler Community Builders

Community Builders: Mexican-American Women and Olvera Street
in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles

Sarabeth Johnson
Johnson Not into Exile but on a Mission

“Not into exile, but on a mission”:
Identity and the Literature of Russian Émigrés in Paris (1918–1939)

Rachel Jensen
Jensen Women of the World DisUnite

Women of the World (Dis)Unite! The Stratification of Women’s Liberation
and the Impact on the Equal Rights Amendment

Kathryn Judith Seu
Seu Making Reality Virtual

Making Reality Virtual:
Improving Holocaust Education through Digitized Material Culture

Jason Ambriz
Ambriz The Language of Progress

The “Language of Progress”:
English in Postwar Western Europe

Nicole Hallenbeck
Hallenbeck Our Boys Need Blood

“Our Boys Need Blood”: The Activism of Women, Lesbians, and
People of Color during the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in San Francisco

Christian Fuentes
Fuentes And even Marx would Not have been able to answer

“And even Marx would not have been able to answer”: The Trilateral
Relationship between China, Russia, and the United States (1989–2022)

Isaiah Colton Thompson
Thompson Widen the Cypher

Widen the Cypher:
Hip Hop Studies in America and Its Relevance to Historians

Robert Fleming, Rachel Jensen, and Jesus Vazquez
Fleming, Jensen, Vazquez Edition

Signed, Sealed, and Delivered:
A Contract of Sale for Land in England (1826)

Andromeda Massé
Massé Edition

“Su Afectísimo Compadre”: Letters of Business and Family
from the Two Californias (1845–1876)

Marcus Arnwine and Anthony Chavez
Arnwine and Chavez Edition

Yankee Doodle Diary: Union Soldier Francis Marion Johnson’s
Recollections of the American Civil War (1863)

Melissa B. Garrison and Carlos J. Marin
Garrison and Marin Edition

“A dream of the golden past”:
Experiencing Southern California through Postcards (1906–1924)

Sergio Daniel Sifuentes
Sifuentes Edition

La Independencia, an Original Orange County Colonia:
Recollections by Nellie Pando Rocha (1982)

Mitchell Granger, Wesley Ha, and Isaiah Colton Thompson
Granger, Ha, and Thompson Edition

“You either were a follower of Martin Luther King or [...] of Malcolm X”:
Joseph Milton’s Memories of the Civil Rights Era, U.S. South, and Vietnam

Anthony Lambright and Jacob Nikolson
Lambright and Nikolson Edition

“A minority within a minority”:
The Joseph Cordova Interview (February 6, 1973)

Books (one PDF)
Reviews Books PDF
  • Best, Jeremy.
    Heavenly Fatherland:
    German Missionary Culture and Globalization in the Age of Empire
    Reviewed by Isaiah Colton Thompson


  • Farag, Lois M.
    Athanasius of Alexandria:
    An Introduction to His Writings and Theology
    Reviewed by Luis Roberto Renteria III

  • Gallagher, Charles R.
    Nazis of Copley Square:
    The Forgotten Story of the Christian Front
    Reviewed by Isaiah Colton Thompson

  • Gibby, Bryan R.
    Korean Showdown:
    National Policy and Military Strategy in a Limited War, 1951–1952
    Reviewed by Anthony Lambright


  • Holden, Brad.
    Seattle Mystic Alfred M. Hubbard:
    Inventor, Bootlegger, and Psychedelic Pioneer
    Reviewed by Mitchell Granger


  • Kishida, Yuka Hiruma.
    Kenkoku University and the Experience of Pan-Asianism:
    Education in the Japanese Empire
    Reviewed by Robert Fleming


  • López-Ruiz, Carolina.
    Phoenicians and the Making of the Mediterranean.
    Reviewed by Jacob Nikolson


  • Lytle Hernández, Kelly.
    Bad Mexicans:
    Race, Empire, and Revolution in the Borderlands
    Reviewed by Sergio Daniel Sifuentes

  • Schrecker, Ellen.
    The Lost Promise:
    American Universities in the 1960s
    Reviewed by Mitchell Granger


  • Sohn, Amy.
    The Man Who Hated Women:
    Sex, Censorship, and Civil Liberties in the Gilded Age
    Reviewed by Rachel Jensen


  • Venit-Shelton, Tamara.
    Herbs and Roots:
    A History of Chinese Doctors in the American Medical Marketplace
    Reviewed by Andromeda Massé


Exhibitions (one PDF)
Reviews Exhibitions PDF
  • The Cheech Marin Center for Chicano Art and Culture.
    Riverside, CA.
    Reviewed by Sergio Daniel Sifuentes


  • Dress Codes.
    Autry Museum of the American West, Los Angeles, CA.
    Reviewed by Melissa B. Garrison


  • The Fantasy of the Middle Ages.
    The Getty Center, Los Angeles, CA.
    Reviewed by Jesus Vazquez


  • USS Midway Museum.
    San Diego, CA.
    Reviewed by Anthony Chavez

Films/Documentaries/TV Shows/Podcasts (one PDF)
Reviews Films Documentaries TV Shows PDF
  • Elvis [film]. Directed by Baz Luhrmann.
    Reviewed by Melissa B. Garrison


  • The Last Duel [film]. Directed Ridley Scott.
    Reviewed by Jacob Nikolson


  • Stuff the British Stole [podcast]. Hosted by Marc Fennell.
    Reviewed by Rachel Jensen


  • Vinland Saga: Season 1 [TV series]. Directed by Shūhei Yabuta.
    Reviewed by Wesley Ha


  • The Woman King [film]. Directed by Gina Prince-Bythewood.
    Reviewed by Marcus Arnwine

Games (one PDF)
Reviews Games PDF
  • Assassin’s Creed: Valhalla. Developer: Ubisoft Montreal.
    Reviewed by Anthony Chavez


  • Mafia: Definitive Edition. Developer: Hangar 13.
    Reviewed by Carlos J. Marin


  • Trek to Yomi. Developer: Flying Wild Hog.
    Reviewed by Robert Fleming


  • War on the Sea. Developer: Killerfish Games.
    Reviewed by Anthony Lambright


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