Articles and Essays
Volume 46 (2019)
Christopher E. Ortega

The Mother Goddess and Her “Metragyrtai”: Cultural Gender Norms and Eunuch Priests from Sixth-Century BCE Greece to the Early Roman Empire

Charles Cauffman

“The strong do what they will, and the weak do what they must”:
Spartan Imperialism and Political Transformation (405-395 BCE) after the Peloponnesian War

Geoffrey Gue

Brunanburh (937 AD):
The Battle That Made England

Zachary John Guillaume

An Emperor’s Journey with Trauma:
Basil II of Byzantium (b. 958, r. 976-1025)

Gareth O’Neal

“Witness in Brass”:
The Funerary Monuments of English Knights (ca. 1300-ca. 1600)

Matthew M. Payan

The Fifth Vow: Ignatian Pedagogy and the Impact of the “Constitutions,” “Ratio Studiorum,”
and “Spiritual Exercises” on Liberal Education in the Sixteenth Century

Nicole Sueda

Foundations for Modernity:
The Impact of the Battle of Sekigahara (1600) and Tokugawa Ieyasu on Japan

Noah Stevens

The Role of Fences in the American Revolution

Louis Filliger

“A Roman would turn back”:
Napoleon Bonaparte’s Invasion of Russia (1812)

Rebecca Stolzer

The Romanticist’s Cure for Cholera:
An Alternative Reading of Alexandre Dumas’s “Travels in Switzerland” (1834)

Natalie Vandercook

The Alamo:
A Battle for Interpretation from 1836 to the Present

Derek Taylor

Creating Southern Thunder:
The Evolution of Confederate Gunpowder Production during the American Civil War

Scott Torres

“Sit and stay”:
Max von Stephanitz’s German Shepherd Dog

Luis Roberto Renteria III

George Gershwin’s “Summertime” (1935):
A Cultural Anthem of Twentieth-Century America

Amelia Nixon

Meet the Monuments Men:
Adaptors, Outsiders, and Visionaries in 1940s Europe

Helen Yoshida

Photographing “Disloyalty”:
Masayuki Yoshida and the Images of Farewell at Heart Mountain (September 21, 1943)

Cristian Ramirez

The Struggle for Mobility:
The G.I. Bill and African American Veterans in the South after World War II

Michael Sinatra

The Ways of the Victors:
The Fractured Legacy of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial (1946-1948)

Miguel A. Quirarte

A Bloody Memory:
Tlatelolco (1968) in Mexican Pop Culture

Sydney Dodenhoff

Historical Narratives:
Products of Ontology and Hierarchy

Kenneth de Seriere

Thought Processes:
How the Past Affects the Future

Stephanie Delateur

Using Theory to Explore Historiography

Welebaethan 2019 Cover


Front Matter


Editors’ Preface

History Awards

Phi Alpha Theta 

Submission Guidelines 

Michaela Malneritch and Michael Ortega

A Glimpse into North America’s Colonial Past:
The Blackden-Stoddard Letters (May 22, 1771, to April 10, 1773)

Stephanie Reilly and Sierra Sampson

Family Perspectives on the American Revolution:
The Blackden-Stoddard Letters (June 3, 1773, to October 29, 1778)

Jessica Kim

The Travels of Samuel Blackden after the American Revolution:
Letters to Sally Blackden (August 17, 1792, to September 18, 1799)

Christopher Saravia and Stephen Van Daalen Wetters with Eduardo Barrios

Peralta Family Business:
Letters from Rancho San Antonio (California) in the 1850s

Alisa Morgan and Kate Tello

From the Stage of the Pasadena Playhouse to the Theaters of World War II:
The Chinn Letters from the Dr. Fairfax Proudfit Walkup Theatre Collection

(September 3, 1941, to June 6, 1946)

Gareth O’Neal and Kelsey Anne Pierce

“Do not let the red cross alarm you”:
Wartime Letters from the Dr. Fairfax Proudfit Walkup Theatre Collection (1942-1943)

Louis Filliger and Brian A. Pitchford

A Pious Revelation to a Friend:
Philip K. Dick’s 1975

Matthew M. Payan and Dale Skarecky

From the Black Forest to Pacific Palisades:
The Life and Journey of Kurt Toppel (1932-2018) during and after World War II

Andrew Cordes and Geoffrey Gue

The Memories of Elfa Ernst (1935-2019):
Surviving Nazi-Controlled Europe and Thriving in California

James Marshall Novak and Luis Roberto Renteria III

The Voice of Jean Ardell:
News Media and Political Courage behind the “Orange Curtain”

Books (one PDF)
  • Ailes, Mary Elizabeth.
    Courage and Grief: Women and Sweden’s Thirty Years’ War.
    Reviewed by Christopher Saravia


  • Bowden, Mark.
    Huế 1968: A Turning Point of the American War in Vietnam.
    Reviewed by Dale Skarecky 


  • De Courcy, Anne.
    The Husband Hunters: American Heiresses Who Married into the British Aristocracy.
    Reviewed by Kelsey Anne Pierce


  • Harline, Craig.
    A World Ablaze: The Rise of Martin Luther and the Birth of the Reformation.
    Reviewed by Michaela Malneritch    


  • Paterson, Linda M.
    Singing the Crusades: French and Occitan Lyric Responses to the Crusading Movements.
    Reviewed by Luis Roberto Renteria III


  • Rublack, Ulinka.
    The Astronomer and the Witch: Johannes Kepler’s Fight for His Mother.
    Reviewed by Sierra Sampson    


  • Schechter, Joel.
    Eighteenth-Century Brechtians: Theatrical Satire in the Age of Walpole.
    Reviewed by Sierra Sampson     


  • Smart, Mary Ann.
    Waiting for Verdi: Opera and Political Opinion in Nineteenth-Century Italy, 1815-1848.
    Reviewed by Louis Filliger    


  • Sternberg, Giora.
    Status Interaction during the Reign of Louis XIV.
    Reviewed by Andrew Cordes    


  • Young, James E.
    The Stages of Memory: Reflections on Memorial Art, Loss, and the Spaces Between.
    Reviewed by Cynthia Castaneda

Exhibitions (one PDF)
  • All That Glitters: Life at the Renaissance Court. The J. Paul Getty Museum.
    Reviewed by James Marshall Novak


  • King Tut: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh. California Science Center.
    Reviewed by Stephanie Reilly 


  • Knights in Armor. Bowers Museum.
    Reviewed by Alisa Morgan  

  • Leo Fender: Life and Legacy. Fullerton Museum Center.
    Reviewed by Michaela Malneritch    


  • National Women’s History Museum. Online Exhibits.
    Reviewed by Kate Tello

Films/Documentaries/TV Shows (one PDF)
  • 6 Days. Directed by Toa Fraser.
    Reviewed by Gareth O’Neal


  • Bisbee ’17. Directed by Robert Greene.
    Reviewed by Kate Tello


  • Dunkirk. Directed by Christopher Nolan.
    Reviewed by Andrew Cordes


  • Knightfall. Season 1. Directed by Douglas Mackinnon et al.
    Reviewed by Sanejo Leonard


  • The Last Kingdom. Season 2. Directed by Peter Hoar et al.
    Reviewed by Geoffrey Gue


  • Operation Finale. Directed by Chris Weitz.
    Reviewed by Kelsey Anne Pierce


  • Outlaw King. Directed by David Mackenzie.
    Reviewed by Patrick O’Brien


  • Silence. Directed by Martin Scorsese.
    Reviewed by Gareth O’Neal


  • The Vietnam War. Directed by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick.
    Reviewed by Brian A. Pitchford


  • The Wind Rises/Kaze Tachinu. Directed by Hayao Miyazaki
    Reviewed by Christopher Saravia

Games (one PDF)
  • Assassin’s Creed: Origins. Developer: Ubisoft Montreal.
    Reviewed by Stephen Van Daalen Wetters


  • Battlefield 1. Developer: EA DICE.
    Reviewed by Matthew M. Payan  


  • Buchel, Alex. SAGA: Core Rulebook.
    Reviewed by Gareth O’Neal     


  • Call of Duty: WWII. Developer: Sledgehammer Games.
    Reviewed by Michael Ortega


  • Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia. Developer: Creative Assembly.
    Reviewed by Matthew M. Payan