Welebaethan 2020 Cover

ISSN 2692-501X


Front Matter


Editors’ Preface

History Awards

Phi Alpha Theta 

Submission Guidelines 

Volume 47 (2020)
Articles and Essays
Matthew Vivonia

Alexander the Great’s “Pirate” Army: 

Terminology, Context, and Legacy

Skyler Jang

“Seek you wisdom still?”

How the Medieval Viking Seeress Lost Her Voice

Gareth Evan O’Neal

“Crosses Crucifixes & other superstitious images”:

The Survival of English Monumental Brasses through Iconoclasm (ca. 1500-ca. 1700)

Kristen Anthony

Vice, Virtue, and the Protection of Property:

Morality in North American Colonial Legislation (ca. 1660-ca. 1740)

Alex Blaa

A Costly Mindset:

British Overconfidence in the Struggle for Florida duringthe American Revolution

Max Nupen

Lingua Yakama:

Sahaptin Language Education and Cultural Self-Determination

Christopher Dean Robbins

Séances, Spirits, and Societal Transformations:

Spiritualism in Victorian and Edwardian Britain (1865-1910)

Ian Woodson Fisher

“Olav Trygvason” by Edvard Grieg and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson:

Viking Identity in Norway’s Romantic Nationalist Movement

Eric Anthony Valencia

Chemical Discoveries, Patriotism, and Jewish Identity:

Assessing the German Nobel Laureate Fritz Haber (1868-1934)

Miguel A. Quirarte

A People without a Nation:

Anti-Chinese Campaigns and Violence in Northern Mexico (1900-1940)

Isaiah Colton Thompson

The Finkenwalde Years (1935-1937):

Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s Response to Racism in Nazi Germany

Cynthia Castaneda

My Wound Is Deeper, My Pain Is Greater:

The Impact of Holocaust Memory and al-Nakba Memory on Israeli/Palestinian Tensions

Robert DeLeon

An Athletic Show of Political Force:

Cold War Political Influence on the Olympic Games (1952-1984)

Alison Jean Helget

Playing Bachelor:

“Playboy” Magazine and Its Remasculinization Campaign (1950s-1960s)

Zachary Robert Fuhr

“Un travail policier?”

Revolutionary War Theory and the French Army in Algeria (1954-1962)

Andrea Herrera

Peace and Love? Brilliant!

Capturing the British Essence of the 1960s Counterculture Movement

Articles and Essays
Shannon Deana Landreth and Anissa Lopez

Family Matters in Post-Revolutionary War North America:

The Blackden-Stoddard Letters (July 8, 1800, to July 24, 1809)

Raumi Majd Kinan, Joshua Kyle Kreeger-Johnston,
Timothy Joseph Mancillas,
and Sierra Rey Sampson

“I have mingled extensively with all kinds of people”:

Azariah Ashley Bancroft’s “Recollections” (1880-1884)

Glenn Patrick Doherty and Amer Hamid

The Drudgery of a Dramatist:

George Bernard Shaw’s Correspondence with Frederick Whelen (1896-1916)

Christopher Dean Robbins and Erika Gabriela Victoria

A Journey to the Southern Continent:

The Allen C. Thomson Antarctic Expedition Diary (1911-1913)

Michael James Thomas and Christopher Braulio Saravia

Letters from “Sid” Goldman:

A Tire Technician in World War II (1944-1945)

Ian Woodson Fisher

“Magnificent degrees and permutations of variability”:

Letters between Frank Herbert and His Editors (1959-1968)

Amr Mohamed Riched and Nicholas Duy Nguyen

The Black Question in America and the Pan-African Movement:

An Interview with Trinidadian Intellectual C. L. R. James (1901-1989)

Andres Munoz-Ramirez and Giovanni D. Romero

The Memories of Hortencia Martínez de Benítez (b. 1926):

Struggles and Repercussions of Repatriation to México in the 1930s

Monique Garcia and Isaiah Colton Thompson

“What is it worth to be a citizen if they can do this to you”:

Oscar Bauman’s Memories of Discrimination during World War II

Books (one PDF)
  • Alexievich, Svetlana.
    Last Witnesses: An Oral History of the Children of World War II.
    Reviewed by Sierra Rey Sampson


  • Biggs, Thomas, and Jessica Blum, eds.
    The Epic Journey in Greek and Roman Literature.
    Reviewed by Clarisse Anne Delima

  • Blight, David W.
    Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom.

    Reviewed by Timothy Joseph Mancillas


  • Boyd, Andrew.
    The Royal Navy in Eastern Waters: Linchpin of Victory 1935-1942.

    Reviewed by Michael James Thomas


  • Ellis, Joseph J.
    American Dialogue: The Founders and Us.

    Reviewed by Ian Woodson Fisher


  • Espinoza, Dionne, María Eugenia Cotera, and Maylei Blackwell, eds.
    Chicana Movidas: New Narratives of Activism and Feminism in the Movement Era.

    Reviewed by Monique Garcia


  • Gilmore, Leigh.
    Tainted Witness: Why We Doubt What Women Say About Their Lives.

    Reviewed by Andrea Young Paik


  • Guiet, Daniel C., and Timothy K. Smith.
    Scholars of Mayhem: My Father’s Secret War in Nazi-Occupied France.

    Reviewed by Sierra Rey Sampson


  • Hochschild, Adam.
    Spain in Our Hearts: Americans in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939.

    Reviewed by Nicholas Duy Nguyen


  • McCullough, David.
    The American Spirit: Who We Are and What We Stand For.

    Reviewed by Amer Hamid


  • Natale, Simone.
    Supernatural Entertainments: Victorian Spiritualism and the Rise of Modern Media Culture.

    Reviewed by Christopher Dean Robbins


  • Reséndez, Andrés.
    The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America.

    Reviewed by Raumi Majd Kinan


  • Sides, Hampton.
    On Desperate Ground: The Marines at the Reservoir, the Korean War’s Greatest Battle.

    Reviewed by Erika Gabriela Victoria


  • Solberg, Mary M., ed.
    A Church Undone: Documents from the German Christian Faith Movement, 1932-1940.

    Reviewed by Isaiah Colton Thompson


  • Terpstra, Nicholas.
    Religious Refugees in the Early Modern World: An Alternative History of the Reformation.

    Reviewed by Glenn Patrick Doherty


  • Tortorici, Zeb.
    Sins against Nature: Sex and Archives in Colonial New Spain.

    Reviewed by Erika Gabriela Victoria


  • Wallace, Patrick F.
    Viking Dublin: The Wood Quay Excavations.

    Reviewed by Shannon Deana Landreth


  • Walpole, Garth.
    Relics of the Franklin Expedition. Edited by Russell Potter.

    Reviewed byChristopher Dean Robbins

  • Zahra, Tara.
    The Great Departure: Mass Migration from Eastern Europe and the Making of the
    Free World.
    Reviewed by Timothy Joseph Mancillas

Exhibitions (one PDF)
  • Apollo 11: One Giant Leap for Mankind. Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum. Reviewed by Anissa Lopez

  • Chinese American Museum. Permanent Exhibitions.
    Reviewed by Miguel A. Quirarte


  • Eighteenth-Century Pastel Portraits. The J. Paul Getty Museum.
    Reviewed by Shannon Deana Landreth


  • Lords and Ladies in Black and White. Salz-Pollak Atrium Gallery, Pollak Library.
    Reviewed by Andres Munoz-Ramirez


  • Lost at Sea: The Explorations of Dr. Robert Ballard. Pacific Battleship Center.
    Reviewed by Michael James Thomas

Films/Documentaries/TV Shows (one PDF)
  • Babylon Berlin. Seasons 1 and 2. Directed by Henk Handloegten et al.
    Reviewed by Joshua Kyle Kreeger-Johnston


  • Bobby Kennedy for President. Directed by Dawn Porter.
    Reviewed by Giovanni D. Romero


  • The Crown. Seasons 1 and 2. Directed by Philip Martin et al.
    Reviewed by Anissa Lopez


  • Narcos. Seasons 1-3. Directed by Andrés Baiz et al.
    Reviewed by Raumi Majd Kinan


  • Norsemen. Seasons 1 and 2. Directed by Jon Iver Helgaker and Jonas Torgersen.
    Reviewed by Andrea Herrera

  • Taco Chronicles. Directed by Carlos Perez Osorio.
    Reviewed by Christopher Braulio Saravia


  • They Shall Not Grow Old. Directed by Peter Jackson.
    Reviewed by Christopher Dean Robbins


  • Viking. Directed by Andrey Kravchuk.
    Reviewed by Andrew Christian Cordes


  • Yesterday. Directed by Danny Boyle.
    Reviewed by Amer Hamid

Games (one PDF)
  • Hearts of Iron IV. Developer: Paradox Development Studio.
    Reviewed by Amr Mohamed Riched


  • Kingdom Come: Deliverance. Developer: Warhorse Studios.
    Reviewed by Joshua Kyle Kreeger-Johnston


  • Sekiro: Shadows Die Twice. Developer: FromSoftware.
    Reviewed by Christopher Braulio Saravia


  • Total War: Three Kingdoms. Developer: Creative Assembly.
    Reviewed by Amr Mohamed Riched